RNA category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples (RNA assay description). The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected. RNA category is calculated separately for data imported from The Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEX), FANTOM5 Consortium (FANTOM5) and internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) data.
Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) transcript level, iii) no evidence, or iv) not available.
Evidence at protein level
A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal tissues. The summary is based on knowledge-based annotation.
"Estimation of protein expression could not be performed. View primary data." is shown for genes analyzed with a knowledge-based approach where available RNA-seq and gene/protein characterization data has been evaluated as not sufficient in combination with immunohistochemistry data to yield a reliable estimation of the protein expression profile.
Standardized explanatory sentences with additional information required for full understanding of the knowledge-based expression profile.
Antibody staining mainly consistent with RNA expression data.
Reliability score (score description), divided into Enhanced, Supported, Approved, or Uncertain, is evaluated in normal tissues and based on consistency between antibody staining pattern, available RNA-Seq and gene/protein characterization data, as well as similarity between independent antibodies targeting the same protein.
Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project. Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page.
Images of selected tissues give a visual summary of the protein expression profile furthest to the right.
The gray human body provides links to a histology dictionary when clicking on any part of the figure.
RNA expression (TPM)i
RNA-seq results generated in HPA are reported as number of transcripts per million (TPM). Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. The assay is described more in detail in Assays & Annotation.
Protein expression (score)i
Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Protein expression scores are based on a best estimate of the "true" protein expression from a knowledge-based annotation, described more in detail under Assays & annotation. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Protein expression data is shown for each of the 44 tissues. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. Mouse-over function shows protein score for analyzed cell types in a selected tissue. To access image data click on tissue name or bar. Annotation of protein expression is described in detail in Assays & annotation.
For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview. However, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
RNA EXPRESSION OVERVIEWi
RNA expression overview shows RNA-data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data, RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and CAGE data from FANTOM5 project. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
HPA dataset RNA-seq tissue data is reported as mean TPM (transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar. The RNA-seq assay is described in detail in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category HPA HPA RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
GTEx dataset RNA-seq data is reported as median RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads), generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category GTEx GTEx RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
FANTOM5 dataset Tissue data obtained through Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) are reported as Tags Per Million, generated by the FANTOM5 project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category FANTOM5 FANTOM5 RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on gene expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. This protein forms a heterodimer with BCL2, and functions as an apoptotic activator. This protein is reported to interact with, and increase the opening of, the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which leads to the loss in membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. The expression of this gene is regulated by the tumor suppressor P53 and has been shown to be involved in P53-mediated apoptosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Transporters Transporter channels and pores SPOCTOPUS predicted membrane proteins Predicted intracellular proteins Cancer-related genes Candidate cancer biomarkers Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014) Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)
GO:0001541 [ovarian follicle development] GO:0001764 [neuron migration] GO:0001776 [leukocyte homeostasis] GO:0001777 [T cell homeostatic proliferation] GO:0001782 [B cell homeostasis] GO:0001783 [B cell apoptotic process] GO:0001822 [kidney development] GO:0001836 [release of cytochrome c from mitochondria] GO:0001844 [protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0001974 [blood vessel remodeling] GO:0002262 [myeloid cell homeostasis] GO:0002352 [B cell negative selection] GO:0002358 [B cell homeostatic proliferation] GO:0002904 [positive regulation of B cell apoptotic process] GO:0005515 [protein binding] GO:0005622 [intracellular] GO:0005634 [nucleus] GO:0005635 [nuclear envelope] GO:0005737 [cytoplasm] GO:0005739 [mitochondrion] GO:0005741 [mitochondrial outer membrane] GO:0005757 [mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex] GO:0005783 [endoplasmic reticulum] GO:0005789 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] GO:0005829 [cytosol] GO:0006687 [glycosphingolipid metabolic process] GO:0006808 [regulation of nitrogen utilization] GO:0006915 [apoptotic process] GO:0006919 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process] GO:0006974 [cellular response to DNA damage stimulus] GO:0006977 [DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest] GO:0006987 [activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response] GO:0007281 [germ cell development] GO:0007283 [spermatogenesis] GO:0007399 [nervous system development] GO:0007548 [sex differentiation] GO:0008053 [mitochondrial fusion] GO:0008283 [cell proliferation] GO:0008285 [negative regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0008289 [lipid binding] GO:0008584 [male gonad development] GO:0008625 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors] GO:0008630 [intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage] GO:0008635 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c] GO:0008637 [apoptotic mitochondrial changes] GO:0009566 [fertilization] GO:0009611 [response to wounding] GO:0009636 [response to toxic substance] GO:0009651 [response to salt stress] GO:0009791 [post-embryonic development] GO:0010212 [response to ionizing radiation] GO:0010248 [establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient] GO:0010332 [response to gamma radiation] GO:0010524 [positive regulation of calcium ion transport into cytosol] GO:0015267 [channel activity] GO:0016020 [membrane] GO:0016021 [integral component of membrane] GO:0016032 [viral process] GO:0021854 [hypothalamus development] GO:0021987 [cerebral cortex development] GO:0030544 [Hsp70 protein binding] GO:0031966 [mitochondrial membrane] GO:0032091 [negative regulation of protein binding] GO:0032461 [positive regulation of protein oligomerization] GO:0032469 [endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis] GO:0032471 [negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration] GO:0032976 [release of matrix enzymes from mitochondria] GO:0033137 [negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation] GO:0033599 [regulation of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation] GO:0034644 [cellular response to UV] GO:0035108 [limb morphogenesis] GO:0035234 [ectopic germ cell programmed cell death] GO:0042475 [odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth] GO:0042802 [identical protein binding] GO:0042803 [protein homodimerization activity] GO:0042981 [regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043065 [positive regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043281 [regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process] GO:0043496 [regulation of protein homodimerization activity] GO:0043497 [regulation of protein heterodimerization activity] GO:0043523 [regulation of neuron apoptotic process] GO:0043524 [negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process] GO:0043525 [positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process] GO:0043653 [mitochondrial fragmentation involved in apoptotic process] GO:0045136 [development of secondary sexual characteristics] GO:0046666 [retinal cell programmed cell death] GO:0046930 [pore complex] GO:0046982 [protein heterodimerization activity] GO:0048087 [positive regulation of developmental pigmentation] GO:0048147 [negative regulation of fibroblast proliferation] GO:0048515 [spermatid differentiation] GO:0048597 [post-embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis] GO:0048678 [response to axon injury] GO:0048872 [homeostasis of number of cells] GO:0048873 [homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue] GO:0051087 [chaperone binding] GO:0051259 [protein oligomerization] GO:0051260 [protein homooligomerization] GO:0051281 [positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol] GO:0051402 [neuron apoptotic process] GO:0051434 [BH3 domain binding] GO:0051726 [regulation of cell cycle] GO:0051881 [regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential] GO:0060011 [Sertoli cell proliferation] GO:0060041 [retina development in camera-type eye] GO:0060058 [positive regulation of apoptotic process involved in mammary gland involution] GO:0060068 [vagina development] GO:0070059 [intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress] GO:0070062 [extracellular exosome] GO:0070242 [thymocyte apoptotic process] GO:0070584 [mitochondrion morphogenesis] GO:0071310 [cellular response to organic substance] GO:0071944 [cell periphery] GO:0072332 [intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by p53 class mediator] GO:0090200 [positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria] GO:0097136 [Bcl-2 family protein complex] GO:0097144 [BAX complex] GO:0097190 [apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097191 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097192 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand] GO:0097193 [intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097296 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:1900103 [positive regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response] GO:1901030 [positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:1902108 [regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process] GO:1902110 [positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process] GO:1902262 [apoptotic process involved in blood vessel morphogenesis] GO:1902263 [apoptotic process involved in embryonic digit morphogenesis] GO:1902445 [regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in programmed necrotic cell death] GO:1902512 [positive regulation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation] GO:1903896 [positive regulation of IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response] GO:1990117 [B cell receptor apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:2001234 [negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:2001241 [positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand] GO:2001244 [positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway]