The RNA tissue category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed tissues (RNA assay description). The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected. RNA tissue category is calculated separately both for internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data, as well as RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and CAGE data from FANTOM5 project.
Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) transcript level, iii) no evidence, or iv) not available.
Evidence at protein level
Reliability score (score description), divided into Supported, Approved, or Uncertain, is based on consistency between the staining pattern of one antibody or several antibodies with RNA-seq data and available gene/protein characterization data.
Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project. Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page. Images of selected tissues give a visual summary of the protein expression profile furthest to the right. The gray human body provides links to a histology dictionary when clicking on any part of the figure.
RNA expression (TPM)i
RNA-seq results generated in HPA are reported as number of transcripts per million (TPM). Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. The assay is described more in detail in Assays & Annotation.
Protein expression (score)i
Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Protein expression scores are based on a best estimate of the "true" protein expression from a knowledge-based annotation, described more in detail under Assays & annotation. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Protein expression data is shown for each of the 44 tissues. The color-coding is based on tissues with functional features in common. Mouse-over function shows protein score for analyzed cell types found in a selected tissue. To access image data click on tissue name or bar. Annotation of protein expression is described in detail in Assays & annotation.
For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview, however, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
Pending normal tissue annotation.
RNA EXPRESSION OVERVIEWi
RNA expression overview shows RNA-data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data, RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and CAGE data from FANTOM5 project. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
HPA dataset RNA-seq tissue data is reported as mean TPM (transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar. The RNA-seq assay is described in detail in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category HPA HPA RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
GTEx dataset RNA-seq data are reported as median RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads), generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category GTEx GTEx RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Tissue enhanced (stomach)
FANTOM5 dataset Tissue data obtained through Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) are reported as Tags Per Million, generated by the FANTOM5 project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category FANTOM5 FANTOM5 RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on gene expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Tissue enhanced (spleen)
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
IL1B (HGNC Symbol)
IL-1B, IL1-BETA, IL1F2
Interleukin 1, beta (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50) (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Predicted intracellular proteins Plasma proteins Cancer-related genes Candidate cancer biomarkers Candidate cardiovascular disease genes FDA approved drug targets Biotech drugs Small molecule drugs Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)
GO:0000122 [negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0000165 [MAPK cascade] GO:0000187 [activation of MAPK activity] GO:0001660 [fever generation] GO:0001666 [response to hypoxia] GO:0001934 [positive regulation of protein phosphorylation] GO:0002223 [stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway] GO:0002437 [inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus] GO:0002439 [chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus] GO:0002711 [positive regulation of T cell mediated immunity] GO:0005125 [cytokine activity] GO:0005149 [interleukin-1 receptor binding] GO:0005576 [extracellular region] GO:0005615 [extracellular space] GO:0005764 [lysosome] GO:0005776 [autophagosome] GO:0005829 [cytosol] GO:0006144 [purine nucleobase metabolic process] GO:0006915 [apoptotic process] GO:0006954 [inflammatory response] GO:0006955 [immune response] GO:0007165 [signal transduction] GO:0007204 [positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration] GO:0007267 [cell-cell signaling] GO:0007566 [embryo implantation] GO:0007568 [aging] GO:0007584 [response to nutrient] GO:0007611 [learning or memory] GO:0007613 [memory] GO:0008210 [estrogen metabolic process] GO:0008285 [negative regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0009100 [glycoprotein metabolic process] GO:0009408 [response to heat] GO:0009743 [response to carbohydrate] GO:0010193 [response to ozone] GO:0010243 [response to organonitrogen compound] GO:0010332 [response to gamma radiation] GO:0010575 [positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production] GO:0010628 [positive regulation of gene expression] GO:0010629 [negative regulation of gene expression] GO:0010829 [negative regulation of glucose transport] GO:0010942 [positive regulation of cell death] GO:0014050 [negative regulation of glutamate secretion] GO:0014070 [response to organic cyclic compound] GO:0014805 [smooth muscle adaptation] GO:0019221 [cytokine-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0019742 [pentacyclic triterpenoid metabolic process] GO:0019904 [protein domain specific binding] GO:0030141 [secretory granule] GO:0030213 [hyaluronan biosynthetic process] GO:0030593 [neutrophil chemotaxis] GO:0030638 [polyketide metabolic process] GO:0030728 [ovulation] GO:0030730 [sequestering of triglyceride] GO:0030949 [positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway] GO:0031622 [positive regulation of fever generation] GO:0031663 [lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0031982 [vesicle] GO:0032308 [positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion] GO:0032355 [response to estradiol] GO:0032496 [response to lipopolysaccharide] GO:0032611 [interleukin-1 beta production] GO:0032725 [positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production] GO:0032729 [positive regulation of interferon-gamma production] GO:0032755 [positive regulation of interleukin-6 production] GO:0032757 [positive regulation of interleukin-8 production] GO:0032874 [positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade] GO:0033092 [positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus] GO:0033129 [positive regulation of histone phosphorylation] GO:0033198 [response to ATP] GO:0033280 [response to vitamin D] GO:0033591 [response to L-ascorbic acid] GO:0034116 [positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion] GO:0035066 [positive regulation of histone acetylation] GO:0035176 [social behavior] GO:0035234 [ectopic germ cell programmed cell death] GO:0035505 [positive regulation of myosin light chain kinase activity] GO:0035634 [response to stilbenoid] GO:0035690 [cellular response to drug] GO:0036270 [response to diuretic] GO:0036273 [response to statin] GO:0042060 [wound healing] GO:0042102 [positive regulation of T cell proliferation] GO:0042346 [positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus] GO:0042493 [response to drug] GO:0043065 [positive regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043122 [regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling] GO:0043123 [positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling] GO:0043278 [response to morphine] GO:0043407 [negative regulation of MAP kinase activity] GO:0043434 [response to peptide hormone] GO:0043491 [protein kinase B signaling] GO:0043507 [positive regulation of JUN kinase activity] GO:0045080 [positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process] GO:0045086 [positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process] GO:0045087 [innate immune response] GO:0045410 [positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process] GO:0045429 [positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process] GO:0045471 [response to ethanol] GO:0045665 [negative regulation of neuron differentiation] GO:0045687 [positive regulation of glial cell differentiation] GO:0045766 [positive regulation of angiogenesis] GO:0045833 [negative regulation of lipid metabolic process] GO:0045840 [positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division] GO:0045893 [positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated] GO:0045944 [positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0046330 [positive regulation of JNK cascade] GO:0046627 [negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway] GO:0046827 [positive regulation of protein export from nucleus] GO:0048711 [positive regulation of astrocyte differentiation] GO:0050766 [positive regulation of phagocytosis] GO:0050768 [negative regulation of neurogenesis] GO:0050796 [regulation of insulin secretion] GO:0050900 [leukocyte migration] GO:0050995 [negative regulation of lipid catabolic process] GO:0050996 [positive regulation of lipid catabolic process] GO:0051044 [positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis] GO:0051091 [positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity] GO:0051092 [positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity] GO:0051384 [response to glucocorticoid] GO:0060355 [positive regulation of cell adhesion molecule production] GO:0060559 [positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity] GO:0070062 [extracellular exosome] GO:0070164 [negative regulation of adiponectin secretion] GO:0070374 [positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade] GO:0070487 [monocyte aggregation] GO:0071222 [cellular response to lipopolysaccharide] GO:0071236 [cellular response to antibiotic] GO:0071260 [cellular response to mechanical stimulus] GO:0071310 [cellular response to organic substance] GO:0071333 [cellular response to glucose stimulus] GO:0071396 [cellular response to lipid] GO:0071398 [cellular response to fatty acid] GO:0071407 [cellular response to organic cyclic compound] GO:0071414 [cellular response to methotrexate] GO:0071548 [response to dexamethasone] GO:0071639 [positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production] GO:0090023 [positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis] GO:0097192 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand] GO:1903140 [regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier] GO:2000173 [negative regulation of branching morphogenesis of a nerve] GO:2000178 [negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation] GO:2000778 [positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion] GO:2001240 [negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand]