Cancer-related genes Disease related genes FDA approved drug targets Predicted intracellular proteins
All genes with at least one predicted secreted isoform have been annotated and classified with the aim to determine if the corresponding protein(s) are secreted into blood, locally secreted or actually being attached to membrane or retained in intracellular localisations like mitochondria, endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus or lysosomes.
A gene will only have one location and the categories and their hierarchy is: Intracellular and membrane, Secreted to blood,Secreted in brain,Secreted to digestive system, Secreted in female reproductive system, Secreted in male reproductive system, Secreted to extracellular matrix, Secreted in other tissues, Secreted - unknown location
A summary of RNA categories for human tissues, cell lines and cancer tissues. Categories for RNA specificity include tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, low tissue specificity and not detected. Categories for RNA distribution include detected in single, detected in some, detected in many, detected in all and not detected.
Human tissue RNA category is based on the consensus dataset, which is a combination of RNA data from human tissues from three sources: HPA, GTEX and FANTOM5. Cell line RNA category is based on RNA data from cells lines from HPA dataset. More information can be found about the normalization and classification of these datasets.
Cancer tissue RNA category is based on RNA data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), categorized in the same way as human tissues and cell lines.
Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) transcript level, iii) no evidence, or iv) not available.
Evidence at protein level
Protein expression normal tissuei
A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal tissues. The summary is based on knowledge-based annotation.
"Estimation of protein expression could not be performed. View primary data." is shown for genes analyzed with a knowledge-based approach where available RNA-seq and gene/protein characterization data has been evaluated as not sufficient in combination with immunohistochemistry data to yield a reliable estimation of the protein expression profile.
Kaplan-Meier plots for all cancers where high expression of this gene has significant (p<0.001) association with patient survival are shown in this summary. Whether the prognosis is favourable or unfavourable is indicated in brackets. Each Kaplan-Meier plot is clickable and redirects to a detailed page that includes individual expression and survival data for patients with the selected cancer.
RNA expression overview shows RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
RNA-seq data in 17 cancer types are reported as median FPKM (number Fragments Per Kilobase of exon per Million reads), generated by the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RNA cancer tissue category is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all 17 cancer tissues and include: cancer tissue enriched, cancer group enriched, cancer tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected. To access cancer specific RNA and prognostic data, click on the cancer name. The cancer types are color-coded according to which type of normal organ the cancer originates from.
Antibody staining in 20 different cancers is summarized by a selection of four standard cancer tissue samples representative of the overall staining pattern. From left: colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. An additional fifth image can be added as a complement. The assay and annotation is described here. Note that samples used for immunohistochemistry by the Human Protein Atlas do not correspond to samples in the TCGA dataset.
For each cancer, color-coded bars indicate the percentage of patients (maximum 12 patients) with high and medium protein expression level. The cancer types are color-coded according to which type of normal organ the cancer originates from. Low or not detected protein expression results in a white bar. Mouse-over function shows details about expression level and normal tissue of origin. The images and annotations can be accessed by clicking on the cancer name or protein expression bar. If more than one antibody is analyzed, the tabs at the top of the staining summary section can be used to toggle between the different antibodies.
Cancer cells displayed moderate to strong cytoplasmic positivity and additional membranous staining in a few cases. Hepatocellular carcinomas were weakly stained or negative.
Several cases of carcinoids, gliomas and testicular cancers along with a few cases of melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, breast and prostate cancers showed moderate to strong cytoplasmic positivity. Remaining cancer tissues were negative.
Cancer tissues displayed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining with additional membranous and nuclear positivity in several tissues. Rare case of glioma and ovarian cancer was strongly stained. Majority of the cases of renal cancers were negative.
Cancer tissues showed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining. Strong positivity was observed in a few cases of pancreatic cancers, melanomas, endometrial cancers and lymphomas.
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
TUBA1A (HGNC Symbol)
B-ALPHA-1, FLJ25113, TUBA3
Tubulin alpha 1a (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulins. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents belong to the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes, which are highly conserved among species. This gene encodes alpha tubulin and is highly similar to the mouse and rat Tuba1 genes. Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated neurologic cells. This gene is one of three alpha-tubulin genes in a cluster on chromosome 12q. Mutations in this gene cause lissencephaly type 3 (LIS3) - a neurological condition characterized by microcephaly, mental retardation, and early-onset epilepsy and caused by defective neuronal migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.