THE HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS BLOG

The housekeeping proteome

2016-06-28
Cytoskeleton Gene expression Housekeeping Metabolism Proteome RNA

Immunohistochemical staining showing the nuclear localization of the polymerase protein POLR2A responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes.

A large number of proteins are needed in all cells throughout the human body. These proteins are sometimes called housekeeping proteins, suggesting that their expression is crucial for the maintenance of basic functionality of all normally functioning cells.

A transcriptomics analysis shows that about 9,000 genes are expressed in all tissues and are therefore expected to fulfill these tasks, such as gene expression, metabolism, and cell structure.

As for gene expression, it is easily understood that every cell must have proteins that are involved in the genetic machinery of translating DNA to functional proteins, like RNA polymerases and ribosomal proteins...Read more


Image of the week - Intermediate filaments

2016-06-24
Image of the week Intermediate filaments Subcell Atlas

Figure 1. Staining of VIM (green) with DNA (blue) in U-251 MG cells.

Welcome back to HPA image of the week! This week we highlight another organelle brought to us by Mikaela Wiking aka HPA_Illuminator, the intermediate filaments!

Intermediate filaments are one of the three cytoskeletons of the cell, together with actin filaments and microtubules.

The expression of intermediate filaments can be extremely dependent on cell type, for example the intermediate filament protein group keratins, discussed in a previous IOTW, are key components in hair, nails and skin...Read more


Expert review by Tissue Atlas director

2016-06-21
Immunocytochemistry Review RNA-seq Tissue Atlas

Cecilia Lindskog, site director of the Tissue Atlas

In January 2015, the Tissue-based map of the human proteome by UhlÚn et al was published. According to Google Scholar, the paper already has more than 400 citations. In a recent editorial by Cecilia Lindskog, the potential utility of the Human Protein Atlas and the Tissue-based map is reviewed.

Cecilia Lindskog is site director of the Tissue Atlas, and you can read more about her and the Tissue Atlas in this blog post from May this year...Read more


Image of the week - Mitochondria by Illuminator

2016-06-17
Image of the week Mitochondria Subcell Atlas

Figure 1. Staining of TOMM5 (green) with DNA (blue) in HeLa cells.

Welcome back to Image of The Week! We will be periodically highlighting an organelle in the coming image of the week posts, written by members of the Subcellular Human Protein Atlas project. This week we kick things off with a post by HPA_Illuminator, and what better way to start than with the mitochondria, the (true) powerhouse of the cell!!!

Mitochondria are found in almost all human cells, in varying numbers. They are known as the powerhouse of the cell as they are responsible for producing the majority of the energy in your body (in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate)...Read more


Proteomic profiling of sarcoidosis patients

2016-06-14
Antibody Suspension Bead Array Sandwich immunoassays

Levels of FN1 and CCL2 in BAL fluid.

In a very recent study, published in Respiratory Research, researchers from the Human Protein Atlas and Karolinska Institutet performed protein profiling of broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid and serum using an antibody suspension bead array technology with the aim to find proteins associated to sarcoidosis.

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous systemic inflammatory disease in which more than 90 % of all patients develop pulmonary manifestations. Several gene associations have previously been described, but established and clinically useful biomarkers are still absent...Read more


Image of the week - FDXR by solartech0

2016-06-10
Citizen Science Image of the week Mitochondria Project Discovery Subcell Atlas

Figure 1. Staining of FDXR (green) with DNA (blue) and microtubules (red) in A549 cells.

Welcome to HPA image of the week! This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery, and specifically by solartech0 who found this image while playing Project Discovery in EVE online.

The protein stained in Fig 1. is an image of ferredoxin reductase (FDXR) found in the mitochondria of the cell. This sample shows a staining of FDXR in A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells.

FDXR is a protein involved in cellular metabolism. This process is what provides energy for our cells and is carried out in the mitochondria of the cell...Read more


Proteins in drug-induced liver injuries

2016-06-07
Affinity proteomicsBiomarkers Drug development Liver

Maria Mikus - first author of the study

Last week, researchers from the Human Protein Atlas, together with others, published a study on drug-induced liver injury in the journal Liver International.

Drug-induced liver injury is the single leading cause for termination of drug development and safety-related withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. In clinical practice, it accounts for more than 50% of liver failure cases and represents a major safety issue for patients. In some patients, drug-induced liver injury can cause severe injury leading to acute liver failure that can be life threatening and require liver transplantation...Read more


Image of the week - Moesin & siRNA from x Truf

2016-06-03
Citizen Science Image of the week Plasma membrane Project Discovery Subcell Atlas

Figure 1. Staining of MSN (green) with DNA (blue) and microtubules (red) in U-251 MG cells. S

It's time for another HPA image of the week! This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery, and specifically by x Truf a member of the Signal Cartel in EVE online who found this image while playing Project Discovery.

The protein stained in Fig 1. is an image of Moesin (MSN) found in the plasma membrane of the cell. This sample shows a staining of MSN in U-251 MG human glioblastoma astrocytoma (brain) cells.

MSN is a member of the ERM family which provide a link between plasma membranes and actin filaments. This link was briefly discussed in a previous blog...Read more