DICTIONARY - CELL STRUCTUREi

Mitochondria


 Staining of mitochondria in human cell line U-2 OS (HPA018990)
Scale bar represents 10µm

Mitochondria

The mitochondria are responsible for the cellular energy production but they also play a big role in several other cellular processes including apoptosis and cell cycle control. They are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell and are enclosed by two separate membranes. The characteristic folds of the inner membrane, called cristae, are the site of biochemical reactions including the oxidative phosphorylation cycle, which generates ATP for the cell. Unlike all other organelles (besides the nucleus) the mitochondrion is the only organelle to possess a small genome on its own, consisting of 37 genes.

Immunofluorescent staining

Mitochondrial stainings are often easy to recognize as they have a long, thread like pattern. They are spread throughout the cell, starting close to the nucleus and stretching all the way out to the edges of the cell. Depending on the cell type, the mitochondria can also be stained as shorter threads that are separated from each other.

Read more about the proteome of the mitochondria.