Immunofluorescent images of formaldehyde-fixed cell lines are shown. Three different organelle markers are displayed as different channels in the multicolor images - nucleus stained in blue, microtubules in red and ER in yellow. The various cell structures that are demonstrated are always shown in the green channel using an antibody found in the Human Protein Atlas. The antibody id is linked to the corresponding Cell Atlas protein page. By using the "toggle channels"-buttons, the different channels can be turned on and off. Most cell structures can be highlighted in the cell illustration by hovering over them with the exception of the aggresome. Cytoplasmic bodies are highlighted as cytosol; cytokinetic bridge, midbody, midbody ring and mitotic spindle are highlighted as microtubules, cell junctions are highlighted as plasma membrane and nucleus is highlighted as nucleoplasm.
Staining of mitochondria in human cell line U-2 OS (HPA018991)
Scale bar represents 10µm
The mitochondria are responsible for the cellular energy production but they also play a big role in several other cellular processes including apoptosis and cell cycle control. They are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell and are enclosed by two separate membranes. The characteristic folds of the inner membrane, called cristae, are the site of biochemical reactions including the oxidative phosphorylation cycle, which generates ATP for the cell. Unlike all other organelles (besides the nucleus) the mitochondrion is the only organelle to possess a small genome on its own, consisting of 37 genes.
Mitochondrial stainings are often easy to recognize as they have a long, thread like pattern. They are spread throughout the cell, starting close to the nucleus and stretching all the way out to the edges of the cell. Depending on the cell type, the mitochondria can also be stained as shorter threads that are separated from each other.