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Dictionary > Cell structure > Vesicles (endosome)

 Staining of endosome in human cell line A-431 (HPA006427)

Vesicles (endosome)

Vesicle is a collective name for a number of different, small membrane-bound organelles that may move things (cargo) around in the cell, between other organelles, or release it to the cell?s exterior.

Peroxisomes use molecular oxygen (O2) to oxidize organic substances, forming hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. Hydrogen peroxide can then be used by the enzyme catalase to oxidize other substrates, e.g. phenols and alcohol. A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of fatty acid molecules.

Early endosomes are the main sorting stations in the endocytic pathway. They are formed when a part of the plasma membrane is budding in with material that has been taken up from the exterior (endocytosis). The endosome can then move the material to the same or other parts of the plasma membrane. It can also fuse with a lysosome, thus degrading it.

Lysosomes are filled with hydrolytic enzymes and are responsible for degrading molecules within the cell. They can fuse with late endosomes, creating something called endolysosomes, degrading the material within the endosome.

Immunofluorescent staining

Vesicle staining can usually be seen as small, bright dots or circles that are uniform in size and shape. Their distribution in the cytosol varies depending on the type of vesicle: endosomes are usually located close to the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus, whereas peroxisomes are spread throughout the cell. Lysosomes are the larger of the three vesicle types and more densely stained. They are often located close to the Golgi apparatus.

Examples IF

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Examples IH

Example 4