SARS-CoV-2

The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) consortium is committed to aid in the fight against the health consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic.

The program involves both efforts to increase the knowledge about the human host proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2, and efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic drugs to combat the pandemic. Read more in the news article and press release.

SARS-CoV-2 related proteins

Below is a summary of the tissue and cell expression patterns of known SARS-CoV-2 interacting human proteins, based on transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics. If you have a suggestion for other human proteins to include here, please send an email to contact@proteinatlas.org

SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors: ACE2
For more information about ACE2 and its cell type-specific expression in human tissues, also see: Hikmet et al "The protein expression profile of ACE2 in human tissues".

SARS-CoV-2 entry associated proteases: TMPRSS2, CTSB, CTSL

SARS-CoV-2 interacting proteins
Human proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 according to Gordon et al "A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing".

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Gene namei Covid-19 baiti Tissue specificityi Tissue expressioni Blood specificityi Subcellular location (main)i
AAR2 SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
AASS SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (basophil) Mitochondria
AATF SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
ABCC1 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Group enriched (basophil, eosinophil, T-reg) Plasma membrane
ACAD9 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ACADM SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (liver, skeletal muscle)
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ACE2 Tissue enriched (intestine)
Not detected in immune cells N/A
ACSL3 SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Tissue enriched (parathyroid gland)
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
ADAM9 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity N/A Immune cell enhanced (classical monocyte) Vesicles
ADAMTS1 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Tissue enhanced (ovary)
Group enriched (NK-cell, gdT-cell) Plasma membrane
AES SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
AGPS SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Peroxisomes
AKAP8 SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
AKAP8L SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nuclear speckles
AKAP9 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Golgi apparatus
ALG11 SARS-CoV2 nsp4 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
ALG5 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
ALG8 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ANO6 SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Cytosol
AP2A2 SARS-CoV2 nsp10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
AP2M1 SARS-CoV2 nsp10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane
AP3B1 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ARF6 SARS-CoV2 nsp15 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
ARL6IP6 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Tissue enhanced (blood)
Group enriched (basophil, eosinophil) Nuclear membrane
ATE1 SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ATP13A3 SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
ATP1B1 SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (kidney)
Group enriched (basophil, T-reg, myeloid DC, NK-cell, memory CD4 T-cell, intermediate monocyte, gdT-cell) N/A
ATP5MG SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ATP6AP1 SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Microtubules, Cytosol
ATP6V1A SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (neutrophil) Nucleoplasm, Vesicles
BAG5 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Tissue enhanced (testis)
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
BCKDK SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
BCS1L SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
BRD2 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nuclear speckles
BRD4 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
BZW2 SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (placenta, skeletal muscle)
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Actin filaments, Cytosol
C1orf50 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
CCDC86 SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Tissue enriched (parathyroid gland)
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
CDK5RAP2 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
CENPF SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Group enriched (bone marrow, lymphoid tissue)
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
CEP112 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (testis) N/A Low immune cell specificity Golgi apparatus
CEP135 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (lymphoid tissue) N/A Low immune cell specificity Focal adhesion sites
CEP250 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
CEP350 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
CEP68 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Centriolar satellite
CHMP2A SARS-CoV2 orf9b Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
CHPF SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (plasmacytoid DC) Cytosol
CHPF2 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Cytosol
CISD3 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
CIT SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (bone marrow, brain)
Immune cell enhanced (T-reg) Cytosol
CLCC1 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Endoplasmic reticulum
CLIP4 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
CNTRL SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
COL6A1 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (memory CD8 T-cell, MAIT T-cell) Cytosol
COLGALT1 SARS-CoV2 nsp1 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
COMT SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Tissue enhanced (liver)
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
COQ8B SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
CRTC3 SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (basophil) Nucleoplasm
CSDE1 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Tissue enhanced (skeletal muscle)
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Cytosol
CSNK2A2 SARS-CoV2 N Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity N/A
CSNK2B SARS-CoV2 N Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
CTSB Tissue enhanced (thyroid gland)
Group enriched (classical monocyte, intermediate monocyte, plasmacytoid DC, myeloid DC, non-classical monocyte, basophil) Vesicles
CTSL Tissue enhanced (placenta)
Group enriched (non-classical monocyte, intermediate monocyte) Golgi apparatus
CUL2 SARS-CoV2 orf10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
CWC27 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
CYB5B SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Tissue enhanced (adrenal gland)
Low immune cell specificity Endoplasmic reticulum
CYB5R3 SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Endoplasmic reticulum
DCAF7 SARS-CoV2 nsp9 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
DCAKD SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
DCTPP1 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Cytosol
DDX10 SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
DDX21 SARS-CoV2 N Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
DNAJC11 SARS-CoV2 nsp4 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
DNAJC19 SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
DNMT1 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
DPH5 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Golgi apparatus
DPY19L1 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
ECSIT SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity