Expression of ACE2 in microvilli of renal
proximal tubules

SARS-CoV-2

The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) consortium is engaged in the corona epidemic in various ways to aid in the fight against the health consequences of this pandemic outbreak. The program involves both efforts to increase the knowledge-base of the disease and efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic drugs to combat the pandemic. In the following, published research papers involving HPA researchers are listed.

Host-virus biology

• F. Hikmet et al (2020) ”The protein expression profile of ACE2 in human tissues” Mol Syst Biol. 2020 16(7):e9610.

• Carapito et al (2021) “Identification of driver genes for severe forms of COVID-19 in a deeply phenotyped young patient cohort” Science Translational Medicine, 10.1126/scitranslmed.abj7521

• Blixt et al (2021) “Covid-19 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Clinical outcome and B- and T-cell immunity during 13 months in consecutive patients” Leukemia DOI: 10.1038/s41375-021-01424-w

• Elfström et al (2021) “Differences in risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers” Preventive Medicine Reports 24, 101518

• S. Havervall et al. (2021) "Robust humoral and cellular immune responses andlow risk for reinfection at least 8 months followingasymptomatic to mild COVID-19," Journal of Internal Medicine, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34459525.

• P Bergman et al. (2021) “Safety and efficacy of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in five groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls in a prospective open-label clinical trial.” EbioMedicine, in press

• W.Zhong et al. (2021) “Next generation plasma profiling of COVID-19 patients with mild and moderate symptoms”[ EbioMedicine, in press

Technology development for viral detection and analysis

• S Mravinacova. et al., (2021) A cell-free high throughput assay for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.” New Biotechnology 66, 46.

• SM Mangsbo et al. (2021) An evaluation of a FluoroSpot assay as a diagnostic tool to determine SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses, PLOS One 16 (9), e0258041

• N. Kharlamova et al. (2021) "False Positive Results in SARS-CoV-2 Serological Tests for Samples From Patients With Chronic Inflammatory Diseases," Frontiers in Immunology, 12 (1365) 666114)

• S. Hober et al. (2021) "Systematic evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antigens enables a highly specific and sensitive multiplex serological COVID-19 assay," Clinical and Translational Immunology 10 (7) e1312

• N. Roxhed et al (2021) Multianalyte serology in home-sampled blood enables an unbiased assessment of the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Nat Commun. 12(1):3695.

• S. Hober et al (2021) “Rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection using quantitative peptide enrichment LC-MS/MS analysis” eLife, in press

Clinical studies

• A.-S. Rudberg et al. (2020) "SARS-CoV-2 exposure, symptoms and seroprevalence in healthcare workers in Sweden.," Nature Communications, 11(1) 5064.

• S. Havervall et al. (2021) "Antibody responses after a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in healthcare workers previously infected with SARS-CoV-2," EBioMedicine, 70, 103523

• J. Dillner et al., (2021) "Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and risk of past or future sick leave," Scientific Reports, 11 (1), 5160

• G. Alkurt et al (2021) G “Seroprevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among health care workers from three pandemic hospitals of Turkey” PLoS One 16(3): e0247865.

• B. Keskinkiliç et al (2021) ”A Resilient Health System in Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019: Experiences of Turkey” Front Public Health. 2021 8:577021.

• K. A. Högelin et al.(2021) "Development of humoral and cellular immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 despite B cell depleting treatment in multiple sclerosis," iScience, 24 (9) 103078

• J. Dillner et al. (2021) "High Amounts of SARS-CoV-2 Precede Sickness Among Asymptomatic Health Care Workers," The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 224 (1), 14-20.

• H. Alkharaan et al. (2021) "Persisting Salivary IgG Against SARS-CoV-2 at 9 Months After Mild COVID-19 : A Complementary Approach to Population Surveys," Journal of Infectious Diseases, 224 (3), 407.

• S. Klevebro et al. (2021) "Risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure among hospital healthcare workers in relation to patient contact and type of care," Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 49 (7), 707-712

• S. Hassan et al.(2021) "SARS-CoV-2 infections amongst personnel providing home care services for older persons in Stockholm, Sweden," Journal of Internal Medicine, 290 (2), 430-436.

• S. Havervall et al. (2021) "Symptoms and Functional Impairment Assessed 8 Months After Mild COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers," Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 325, 2015.

• W. Zhong et al. (2021) "Next generation plasma proteome profiling of COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms" EBioMedicine. In Press.

Therapeutic development

• O. Altay et al (2021) “Combined Metabolic Activators Accelerates Recovery in Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19” Advance Science (Weinh). 2021 8(17):e2101222.

• O. Altay et al (2020) “Current Status of COVID-19 Therapies and Drug Repositioning Applications” iScience. 23(7):101303.

In summary, the Human Protein Atlas consortium has used their knowledge, technology platforms and resources to aid in the fight towards the pandemic. This includes technology development, viral assay optimizations, basic biology research, community-based research as well as diagnostic and drug development.

SARS-CoV-2 related proteins

Below is a summary of the tissue and cell expression patterns of known SARS-CoV-2 interacting human proteins, based on transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics. If you have a suggestion for other human proteins to include here, please send an email to contact@proteinatlas.org

SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors: ACE2 For more information about ACE2 and its cell type-specific expression in human tissues, also see: Hikmet F et al. (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 entry associated proteases: TMPRSS2, CTSB, CTSL

SARS-CoV-2 interacting proteins: Human proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 according to Gordon DE et al. (2020)

View genes on search page

Gene namei Covid-19 baiti Tissue specificityi Tissue expressioni Blood specificityi Subcellular location (main)i
AAR2 SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
AASS SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (liver)
Not detected in immune cells Mitochondria
AATF SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
ABCC1 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Not detected in immune cells Plasma membrane
ACAD9 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ACADM SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (liver, skeletal muscle, tongue)
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ACE2 Tissue enhanced (gallbladder, intestine, kidney)
Not detected in immune cells N/A
ACSL3 SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Tissue enhanced (parathyroid gland)
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli, Nucleoli rim
ADAM9 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity N/A Immune cell enhanced (classical monocyte) Vesicles
ADAMTS1 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Tissue enhanced (ovary)
Group enriched (NK-cell, gdT-cell) Plasma membrane
AGPS SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Peroxisomes
AKAP8 SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
AKAP8L SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nuclear speckles
AKAP9 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Golgi apparatus
ALG11 SARS-CoV2 nsp4 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
ALG5 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
ALG8 SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ANO6 SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Cytosol
AP2A2 SARS-CoV2 nsp10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
AP2M1 SARS-CoV2 nsp10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane
AP3B1 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ARF6 SARS-CoV2 nsp15 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
ARL6IP6 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Low tissue specificity
Group enriched (basophil, eosinophil) Nuclear membrane
ATE1 SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
ATP13A3 SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli
ATP1B1 SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (brain, kidney)
Immune cell enhanced (basophil) N/A
ATP5MG SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
ATP6AP1 SARS-CoV2 nsp6 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
ATP6V1A SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (neutrophil) Vesicles, Cytosol
BAG5 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Tissue enriched (testis)
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
BCKDK SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
BCS1L SARS-CoV2 orf9c Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
BRD2 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nuclear speckles
BRD4 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
BZW2 SARS-CoV2 M Tissue enhanced (heart muscle, skeletal muscle, tongue)
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Actin filaments, Cytosol
C1orf50 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
CCDC86 SARS-CoV2 nsp8 Tissue enriched (parathyroid gland)
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoli, Nucleoli rim, Mitotic chromosome
CDK5RAP2 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (basophil) Centrosome
CENPF SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (bone marrow, lymphoid tissue)
Not detected in immune cells Nucleoplasm
CEP112 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (testis) N/A Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Centrosome
CEP135 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity N/A
CEP250 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity N/A Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
CEP350 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Centrosome
CEP68 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Centriolar satellite
CHMP2A SARS-CoV2 orf9b Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Cytosol
CHPF SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (plasmacytoid DC) Cytosol
CHPF2 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm, Cytosol
CISD3 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Not detected in immune cells N/A
CIT SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (brain)
Not detected in immune cells Cytosol
CLCC1 SARS-CoV2 orf3a Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Endoplasmic reticulum
CLIP4 SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (non-classical monocyte) Vesicles
CNTRL SARS-CoV2 nsp13 Tissue enhanced (bone marrow, testis)
Low immune cell specificity Centrosome, Cytosol
COL6A1 SARS-CoV2 orf8 Low tissue specificity
Not detected in immune cells Cytosol
COLGALT1 SARS-CoV2 nsp1 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
COMT SARS-CoV2 nsp7 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Vesicles
COQ8B SARS-CoV2 M Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Mitochondria
CRTC3 SARS-CoV2 nsp12 Low tissue specificity
Immune cell enhanced (basophil) Nucleoplasm
CSDE1 SARS-CoV2 orf9b Tissue enhanced (skeletal muscle)
Low immune cell specificity Plasma membrane, Cytosol
CSNK2A2 SARS-CoV2 N Tissue enhanced (testis) N/A Low immune cell specificity N/A
CSNK2B SARS-CoV2 N Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity N/A
CTSB Low tissue specificity
Group enriched (classical monocyte, intermediate monocyte, plasmacytoid DC, basophil, non-classical monocyte, myeloid DC) Vesicles
CTSL Tissue enhanced (placenta)
Group enriched (non-classical monocyte, intermediate monocyte) Golgi apparatus, Vesicles
CUL2 SARS-CoV2 orf10 Low tissue specificity
Low immune cell specificity Nucleoplasm
CWC27 SARS-CoV2 E Low tissue specificity