The thyroid cell type enriched transcriptome
The main function of the thyroid gland is the regulation of the metabolic rate. It produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which increase heart rate, respiration and gastrointestinal motility and stimulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, a hormone that regulates blood calcium levels.
3017 genes were predicted to have cell type specificity in the thyroid.
Thyroid cell type enriched transcriptome: Summary
Genes with predicted cell type specificity within thyroid are detailed in Table 1. Identified genes are subdivided into 3 specificity categories, based on the difference between the enrichment score in the corresponding cell type, compared to the other cell types profiled in the tissue (see Methods Summary page for details):
Thyroid cell type enriched transcriptome: Illustrative examples
Parafollicular cells, also known as clear cells, or C-cells, are a neuroendocrine cell found in the thyroid, whose main function is to produce and secrete calcitonin (CALCA), which helps to regulate calcium homeostasis. Other genes classified as having specificity in parafollicular cells include Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme that catalyzes a range of different decarboxylation reactions.
Thyroid glandular cells
Thyroid glandular cells, or follicular cells, are the major cell type in the thyroid gland, and regulate thyroid function including the production and secretion of thyroid hormones. The hormone triodothyronine (T3) is formed from thyroxine (T4), via the action of enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD). Cystathionine Gamma-Lyase (CTH), a cytoplasmic enzyme, FKBP Prolyl Isomerase 5 (FKBP5), a member of the immunophilin protein family, which plays a role in immunoregulation, protein folding and trafficking, and Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme, were all classified as having specificity in glandular cells in the thyroid.