The prostate cell type enriched transcriptome
The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system which produces approximately one third of the fluid that makes up semen. The fluid produced by the prostate helps protect and nourish the sperm cells and prolongs their survival after expulsion from the urethra.
1935 genes were predicted to have cell type specificity in the prostate.
Prostate cell type enriched transcriptome: Summary
Genes with predicted cell type specificity within prostate are detailed in Table 1. Identified genes are subdivided into 3 specificity categories, based on the difference between the enrichment score in the corresponding cell type, compared to the other cell types profiled in the tissue (see Methods Summary page for details):
Prostate cell type enriched transcriptome: Illustrative examples
Prostate glandular cells
The prostate glandular cells line the luminal surface of the prostate gland, and secrete a variety of proteins that make up the seminal fluid, such as Kallikrein Related Peptidase 3 (KLK3), also known as prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is believed to be important for liquefaction of seminal fluid in the seminal coagulum allowing sperm to swim freely. The serum levels of PSA are often elevated in prostate cancer, and other prostate disorders, making it a widely used biomarker for early detection in patients with prostate cancer. Other genes classified as having high specificity in the prostate glandular cells include Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), responsible for the breakdown of tyrosine and phenylalanine.
Prostate basal glandular cells
Basal glandular cells of the prostate lie beneath the luminal glandular cells, and are important for the structural integrity of the prostate gland. Basal cells are also thought to be the source of the majority of prostate cancers. Genes classified as having high specificity in basal glandular cells include plakophilin-3 (PKP3), involved in the stability of intercellular junctions, or desmosomes, as well as Tumor Protein P73 (TP73), which is involved in the cell cycle.
Seminal fluid from the prostate empties into the urethra, which runs directly through the prostate and is lined by urothelial cells. Urothelial cells are highly impermeable, and protect the underlying tissue from toxic components of the urine. Genes classified as having high specificity in urothelial cells include the structural intermediate filament Keratin 13 KRT13, as well as the antimicrobial peptide GPR15LG.
The immunohistochemistry images of prostate tissue featured in the Human Protein Atlas do not currently include examples from the urethra or urothelial cell tissue.