Results of validation by standard or enhanced validation based on assessment of antibody performance in 44 normal tissues.
Standard validation results in scores Supported, Approved or Uncertain. An image representative of the antibody staining pattern is shown.
Enhanced validation results in the score Enhanced and includes two methods: Orthogonal validation and Independent antibody validation. For orthogonal validation, representative images of high and low expression are shown. For independent antibody validation, four images of each independent antibody are displayed.
Diffuse-synaptic immunostaining is observed in distinct regions of the brain with various signal intensities. The distribution of the immunostaining is highly restricted to certain regions.
In the olfactory bulb, diffuse-synaptic staining is noticed in the external plexiform-, glomerular- and olfactory nerve layers. In the forebrain, moderate-strong staining is noticed in the septum (lateral-medial), anterior and tuberal hypothalamus, globus pallidus, the entire thalamus and hippocampus. Weak-moderate staining is noticed in the neocortex layer V, the retrosplenial granular cortex, entorhianl and piriform cortices.
In the brainstem, the moderate-strong diffuse synaptic staining is restricted to multiple (but not all) nuclei). (Mouse brain)
A protein array containing 384 different antigens including the antibody target is used to analyse antibody specificity. Depending on the array interaction profile the antibody is scored as Supported, Approved, or Uncertain.
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Below the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.