All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of corresponding protein based on prediction methods for signal peptides and transmembrane regions.
Genes with at least one transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, according to prediction methods or to UniProt location data, have been further annotated and classified with the aim to determine if the corresponding protein(s) are secreted or actually retained in intracellular locations or membrane-attached.
Remaining genes, with no transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, will be assigned the prediction-based location(s).
The annotated location overrules the predicted location, so that a gene encoding a predicted secreted protein that has been annotated as intracellular will have intracellular as the final location.
The Tissue Atlas contains information regarding the expression profiles of human genes both on the mRNA and protein level. The protein expression data from 44 normal human tissue types is derived from antibody-based protein profiling using immunohistochemistry.
The RNA specificity category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples based on a combination of data from HPA, GTEX and FANTOM5. The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, low tissue specificity and not detected.
The RNA distribution category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples based on a combination of data from HPA, GTEX and FANTOM5. The categories include: detected in all, detected in many, detected in some, detected in single and not detected.
Summary of data presented in the Cell Atlas and a representative image of subcellular localization. The Cell Atlas provides RNA expression data derived from RNA sequencing of a large panel of cell lines and protein localization data derived from antibody-based profiling by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, using a subset of cell lines selected based on RNA expression.
The main location is characterized by presence in all tested cell lines and/or increased intensity compared to other locations. It is highlighted in the illustration to the right. If available, links to overrepresentation analyses in Reactome, a free, open-source, curated and peer reviewed biological pathway database, are provided. An analysis is done for the corresponding gene set of the proteome localizing to the main and additional locations of the protein on this page, respectively.
Localized to the Nucleoplasm
Show complete data for human cells assay. The location(s) are highlighted in the illustration on the right.
Localized to the nucleoplasm.
RNA cell specificityi
The cell lines in the Human Protein Atlas have been analyzed by RNA-seq to estimate the transcript abundance of each protein-coding gene. The RNA-seq data was then used to classify all genes according to their cell line-specific expression into one of six different categories, defined based on the total set of all NX values in all analyzed cell lines.
Classification of genes according to distribution of their RNA expression among the cell lines within the HPA. The categories include: detected in all, detected in many, detected in some, detected in single and not detected.
Summary of data presented in the Pathology Atlas , including mRNA and protein expression data from 17 different forms of human cancer, as well as correlation analysis of mRNA expression and patient survival. To the far left, a representative image of protein expression, based on immunohistochemistry, is shown. Next to it, a representative image of a Kaplan-Meier plot, based on correlation analysis. Images are clickable and redirect to pages with more Pathology Atlas data.
The regional specificity category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed brain samples, grouped into 10 main brain regions and calculated for the three different species. The human brain expression profile is based on a combination of data from GTEX and FANTOM5. The specificity categories include: regionally enriched, group enriched, regionally enhanced, low regional specificity and not detected. The classification rules are the same used for the tissue specificity category.
The regional distribution category is based on mRNA expression detected above cut off or not in the analyzed brain samples, grouped into 10 main brain regions and calculated for the three different species. The human brain expression is based on a combination of data from GTEX and FANTOM5. The distribution categories include: detected in all, detected in many, detected in some, detected in single and not detected. The classification rules are the same used for the tissue distribution category.
The RNA specificity category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples based on data from HPA. The categories include: cell type enriched, group enriched, cell type enhanced, low cell type specificity and not detected.
The RNA distribution category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples based on data from HPA. The categories include: detected in all, detected in many, detected in some, detected in single and not detected.
The blood-based immunoassay category applies to actively secreted proteins and is based on plasma or serum protein concentrations established with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, compiled from a literature search. The categories include: detected and not detected, where detection refers to a concentration found in the literature search.
Not analysed since only proteins predicted to be actively secreted to blood is analysed here
Detection or not of the gene in blood, based on spectral count estimations from a publicly available mass spectrometry-based plasma proteomics data set obtained from the PeptideAtlas.
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
HES1 (HGNC Symbol)
bHLHb39, FLJ20408, HES-1, Hes1, HRY
Hes family bHLH transcription factor 1 (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Below the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Predicted intracellular proteins Intracellular proteins predicted by MDM and MDSEC Plasma proteins Transcription factors Basic domains Mapped to neXtProt neXtProt - Evidence at protein level Protein evidence (Peptideatlas)
GO:0000122 [negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0000981 [RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding] GO:0001078 [transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding] GO:0001701 [in utero embryonic development] GO:0001889 [liver development] GO:0003143 [embryonic heart tube morphogenesis] GO:0003151 [outflow tract morphogenesis] GO:0003266 [regulation of secondary heart field cardioblast proliferation] GO:0003281 [ventricular septum development] GO:0003677 [DNA binding] GO:0003700 [DNA binding transcription factor activity] GO:0005515 [protein binding] GO:0005622 [intracellular] GO:0005634 [nucleus] GO:0005654 [nucleoplasm] GO:0005737 [cytoplasm] GO:0006351 [transcription, DNA-templated] GO:0006355 [regulation of transcription, DNA-templated] GO:0006357 [regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0007155 [cell adhesion] GO:0007219 [Notch signaling pathway] GO:0007224 [smoothened signaling pathway] GO:0007262 [STAT protein import into nucleus] GO:0007389 [pattern specification process] GO:0007399 [nervous system development] GO:0008134 [transcription factor binding] GO:0008284 [positive regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0016477 [cell migration] GO:0021537 [telencephalon development] GO:0021555 [midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphogenesis] GO:0021557 [oculomotor nerve development] GO:0021558 [trochlear nerve development] GO:0021575 [hindbrain morphogenesis] GO:0021861 [forebrain radial glial cell differentiation] GO:0021915 [neural tube development] GO:0021983 [pituitary gland development] GO:0021984 [adenohypophysis development] GO:0030324 [lung development] GO:0030513 [positive regulation of BMP signaling pathway] GO:0030901 [midbrain development] GO:0031016 [pancreas development] GO:0035019 [somatic stem cell population maintenance] GO:0035909 [aorta morphogenesis] GO:0035910 [ascending aorta morphogenesis] GO:0042102 [positive regulation of T cell proliferation] GO:0042491 [inner ear auditory receptor cell differentiation] GO:0042531 [positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein] GO:0042668 [auditory receptor cell fate determination] GO:0042803 [protein homodimerization activity] GO:0042826 [histone deacetylase binding] GO:0043388 [positive regulation of DNA binding] GO:0043565 [sequence-specific DNA binding] GO:0045165 [cell fate commitment] GO:0045596 [negative regulation of cell differentiation] GO:0045598 [regulation of fat cell differentiation] GO:0045607 [regulation of inner ear auditory receptor cell differentiation] GO:0045608 [negative regulation of inner ear auditory receptor cell differentiation] GO:0045665 [negative regulation of neuron differentiation] GO:0045747 [positive regulation of Notch signaling pathway] GO:0045892 [negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated] GO:0045893 [positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated] GO:0045944 [positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0045977 [positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic] GO:0046331 [lateral inhibition] GO:0046427 [positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade] GO:0046983 [protein dimerization activity] GO:0048469 [cell maturation] GO:0048505 [regulation of timing of cell differentiation] GO:0048538 [thymus development] GO:0048667 [cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation] GO:0048711 [positive regulation of astrocyte differentiation] GO:0048715 [negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation] GO:0048844 [artery morphogenesis] GO:0050678 [regulation of epithelial cell proliferation] GO:0050767 [regulation of neurogenesis] GO:0051087 [chaperone binding] GO:0060122 [inner ear receptor cell stereocilium organization] GO:0060164 [regulation of timing of neuron differentiation] GO:0060253 [negative regulation of glial cell proliferation] GO:0060412 [ventricular septum morphogenesis] GO:0060675 [ureteric bud morphogenesis] GO:0060716 [labyrinthine layer blood vessel development] GO:0061009 [common bile duct development] GO:0061106 [negative regulation of stomach neuroendocrine cell differentiation] GO:0061309 [cardiac neural crest cell development involved in outflow tract morphogenesis] GO:0061626 [pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis] GO:0065003 [macromolecular complex assembly] GO:0071820 [N-box binding] GO:0072012 [glomerulus vasculature development] GO:0072049 [comma-shaped body morphogenesis] GO:0072050 [S-shaped body morphogenesis] GO:0072141 [renal interstitial fibroblast development] GO:0072282 [metanephric nephron tubule morphogenesis] GO:0090102 [cochlea development] GO:0090162 [establishment of epithelial cell polarity] GO:0097084 [vascular smooth muscle cell development] GO:0097150 [neuronal stem cell population maintenance] GO:1903955 [positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion] GO:2000227 [negative regulation of pancreatic A cell differentiation] GO:2000737 [negative regulation of stem cell differentiation] GO:2000974 [negative regulation of pro-B cell differentiation] GO:2000978 [negative regulation of forebrain neuron differentiation] GO:2000981 [negative regulation of inner ear receptor cell differentiation]