RNA category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples (RNA assay description). The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected. RNA category is calculated separately for data imported from The Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEX), FANTOM5 Consortium (FANTOM5) and internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) data.
Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) transcript level, iii) no evidence, or iv) not available.
Evidence at protein level
A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal tissues. The summary is based on knowledge-based annotation.
"Estimation of protein expression could not be performed. View primary data." is shown for genes analyzed with a knowledge-based approach where available RNA-seq and gene/protein characterization data has been evaluated as not sufficient in combination with immunohistochemistry data to yield a reliable estimation of the protein expression profile.
Low cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in most tissues.
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DATA RELIABILITY
Data reliability descriptioni
Standardized explanatory sentences with additional information required for full understanding of the knowledge-based expression profile.
Antibody staining mainly consistent with RNA expression data.
Reliability score (score description), divided into Enhanced, Supported, Approved, or Uncertain, is evaluated in normal tissues and based on consistency between antibody staining pattern, available RNA-Seq and gene/protein characterization data, as well as similarity between independent antibodies targeting the same protein.
Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project. Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page.
Images of selected tissues give a visual summary of the protein expression profile furthest to the right.
The gray human body provides links to a histology dictionary when clicking on any part of the figure.
RNA expression (TPM)i
RNA-seq results generated in HPA are reported as number of transcripts per million (TPM). Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. The assay is described more in detail in Assays & Annotation.
Protein expression (score)i
Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Protein expression scores are based on a best estimate of the "true" protein expression from a knowledge-based annotation, described more in detail under Assays & annotation. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Protein expression data is shown for each of the 44 tissues. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. Mouse-over function shows protein score for analyzed cell types in a selected tissue. To access image data click on tissue name or bar. Annotation of protein expression is described in detail in Assays & annotation.
For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview. However, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
RNA EXPRESSION OVERVIEWi
RNA expression overview shows RNA-data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data, RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and CAGE data from FANTOM5 project. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
HPA dataset RNA-seq tissue data is reported as mean TPM (transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar. The RNA-seq assay is described in detail in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category HPA HPA RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
GTEx dataset RNA-seq data is reported as median RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads), generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category GTEx GTEx RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
FANTOM5 dataset Tissue data obtained through Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) are reported as Tags Per Million, generated by the FANTOM5 project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category FANTOM5 FANTOM5 RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on gene expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
FADD (HGNC Symbol)
Fas associated via death domain (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
The protein encoded by this gene is an adaptor molecule that interacts with various cell surface receptors and mediates cell apoptotic signals. Through its C-terminal death domain, this protein can be recruited by TNFRSF6/Fas-receptor, tumor necrosis factor receptor, TNFRSF25, and TNFSF10/TRAIL-receptor, and thus it participates in the death signaling initiated by these receptors. Interaction of this protein with the receptors unmasks the N-terminal effector domain of this protein, which allows it to recruit caspase-8, and thereby activate the cysteine protease cascade. Knockout studies in mice also suggest the importance of this protein in early T cell development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Q13158 [Direct mapping] FAS-associated death domain protein
Phobius predicted secreted proteins Predicted intracellular proteins Cancer-related genes Candidate cancer biomarkers Disease related genes Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014) Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)
GO:0001916 [positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity] GO:0002020 [protease binding] GO:0002376 [immune system process] GO:0002821 [positive regulation of adaptive immune response] GO:0005123 [death receptor binding] GO:0005164 [tumor necrosis factor receptor binding] GO:0005515 [protein binding] GO:0005634 [nucleus] GO:0005737 [cytoplasm] GO:0005829 [cytosol] GO:0005886 [plasma membrane] GO:0006915 [apoptotic process] GO:0006919 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process] GO:0007165 [signal transduction] GO:0007166 [cell surface receptor signaling pathway] GO:0008625 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors] GO:0016032 [viral process] GO:0031264 [death-inducing signaling complex] GO:0031265 [CD95 death-inducing signaling complex] GO:0032403 [protein complex binding] GO:0032729 [positive regulation of interferon-gamma production] GO:0032757 [positive regulation of interleukin-8 production] GO:0032760 [positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production] GO:0032813 [tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding] GO:0033077 [T cell differentiation in thymus] GO:0033612 [receptor serine/threonine kinase binding] GO:0035666 [TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway] GO:0035877 [death effector domain binding] GO:0036462 [TRAIL-activated apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0042104 [positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation] GO:0042220 [response to cocaine] GO:0042802 [identical protein binding] GO:0042981 [regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043005 [neuron projection] GO:0043029 [T cell homeostasis] GO:0043065 [positive regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043123 [positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling] GO:0043234 [protein complex] GO:0043278 [response to morphine] GO:0044297 [cell body] GO:0045087 [innate immune response] GO:0045121 [membrane raft] GO:0045651 [positive regulation of macrophage differentiation] GO:0045862 [positive regulation of proteolysis] GO:0045944 [positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0048148 [behavioral response to cocaine] GO:0048535 [lymph node development] GO:0048536 [spleen development] GO:0048538 [thymus development] GO:0051607 [defense response to virus] GO:0060340 [positive regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0060544 [regulation of necroptotic process] GO:0060546 [negative regulation of necroptotic process] GO:0070236 [negative regulation of activation-induced cell death of T cells] GO:0071260 [cellular response to mechanical stimulus] GO:0071550 [death-inducing signaling complex assembly] GO:0089720 [caspase binding] GO:0097049 [motor neuron apoptotic process] GO:0097190 [apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097191 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097192 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand] GO:0097202 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity] GO:0097296 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097342 [ripoptosome] GO:0097527 [necroptotic signaling pathway] GO:1902041 [regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors] GO:1902042 [negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors] GO:1902043 [positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors] GO:2000454 [positive regulation of CD8-positive, alpha-beta cytotoxic T cell extravasation] GO:2001238 [positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway]