All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of corresponding protein based on prediction methods for signal peptides and transmembrane regions.
Genes with at least one transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, according to prediction methods or to UniProt location data, have been further annotated and classified with the aim to determine if the corresponding protein(s) are secreted or actually retained in intracellular locations or membrane-attached.
Remaining genes, with no transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, will be assigned the prediction-based location(s).
The annotated location overrules the predicted location, so that a gene encoding a predicted secreted protein that has been annotated as intracellular will have intracellular as the final location.
Number of protein-coding transcripts from the gene as defined by Ensembl.
HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS INFORMATIONi
Summary of RNA expression and protein localization based on data generated within the Human Protein Atlas project.
Main subcellular location(s) and reliability score(s) for the encoded protein(s) in human cells. The main location(s) may be characterized by presence in all tested cell lines and/or ihigher staining intensity compared to the potential additional location(s). If available, links to overrepresentation analyses in Reactome, a free, open-source, curated and peer reviewed biological pathway database, are provided. An analysis is done for the corresponding gene set of the proteome localizing to the main and additional locations of the protein on this page, respectively.
A possible secretion of the protein was predicted based on N-terminal signal sequence (signal peptide) predictions and transmembrane region predictions, and subsequently annotated for its local or systemic secretion based on literature, function, and protein and RNA expression data.
Overall gene reliability score for the subcellular location(s) of the encoded protein(s). A reliability score is set for all genes and indicates the level of reliability of the analyzed protein expression pattern based on available protein/RNA/gene characterization data. The reliability of the annotated protein expression data is also scored depending on similarity in immunostaining patterns and consistency with available experimental gene/protein characterization data in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database.
Overview of RNA expression levels in different cell lines analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas. The RNA-sequencing results generated in the HPA are reported as normalized transcript per million (nTPM) values. In the Human Protein Atlas a nTPM value of 1.0 is defined as a threshold for expression of the corresponding protein. The cell lines are divided into color-coded groups according to their origin in the human body. By clicking the toolbars in the top right corner it is possible to sort the cell lines in the chart by different criteria: the organ and the origin that the cell line was obtained from, the category of the cell line according to cellosaurus, alphabetically or by descending RNA expression. Detailed information about a specific cell line can be accessed by hovering over the corresponding bar in the chart.
RNA specificity category based on RNA sequencing data from all cell lines in the Human Protein Atlas. Genes are classified into six different categories (enriched, group enriched, enhanced, low specificity and not detected) according to their RNA expression levels across the panel of cell lines.