THE HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS BLOG

Image of the week - GAD1 in the brain

2016-04-26   |   0 Comments
Brain Image of the week Mouse Brain Atlas

Fig 1. Staining of GAD1 (green) and DAPI (blue) in mouse forebrain cortex and interbrain thalamus and hypothalamus.

This week, the Human Protein Atlas is highlighting a new atlas recently released in HPA 14, The Mouse Brain Atlas. This image from The Mouse Brain Atlas was brought to us by Nadya Petseva, a team member on the project. I know what you're thinking, what's a mouse doing in the "human" protein atlas?!

Though we typically deal with human cells and tissues in the HPA, it is not currently possible to image full human brain at the cellular level, whereas using a mouse brain we can gain key insights into how proteins in the brain function in situ. This makes mice an attractive "model organism" as their brains actually consist of very similar regions to those found in humans...Read more


The Mastermind of the Brain Atlas

2016-04-26   |   0 Comments
Brain Interview Mouse Brain Atlas

Today we introduce a new feature on the Human Protein Atlas blog, interviews with scientists involved in the project. First out is Jan Mulder, head of the brain initiative.

– I am a biologist, specialized in neurobiology with a PhD in molecular neurobiology from Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands.

In 2004, at the same time that the Human Protein Atlas project was producing its first antibodies, Jan Mulder came as a post-doc to the group of Tomas Hkfeld at Karolinska Institute. In collaboration with Mathias Uhln and the Human Protein Atlas he began to explore the possibilities to use antibodies raised against human targets on rodent brain tissue...Read more


Image of the week - Membrane by Aleksandra Shaishi

2016-04-22   |   0 Comments
Citizen Science Image of the week Project Discovery Subcell Atlas

Fig 1. Staining of SLCA (3 & 14) (green) with tubules (red) and DNA (blue) in CACO-2 cells. This image was taken directly as posted by Aleksandra Shaishi and thus color-channel toggles can be seen at the bottom of the image.

It's the end of the week, and that means another HPA image of the week! This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery, and specifically by Aleksandra Shaishi who found this image playing Project Discovery.

The protein labeled in Fig 1. is an image of the antibody HPA006539, which labels solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) (SLC2A) member 3 and member 14. This is what we call a "multi-targeting" antibody as it binds more than one protein...Read more


Analysis of 32 human organs and tissues

2016-04-20   |   0 Comments
Brain Human Protein Atlas Testis Tissue Atlas

A network plot of the tissue enriched (red) and group enriched (orange) genes

In the Human Protein Atlas, there are 32 human organs and tissues analyzed. 2489 of the genes have significantly higher expression in one tissue compared to all other tissue types. Analysis show that testis is the organ with the largest number of tissue-enriched genes, with 1057 genes classified as testis enriched. The specific events and alterations of cell structure during spermatogenesis, and the fact that sperm has the ability to survive outside the male body may explain why testis has the largest number of enriched genes.

The organ with the second highest number of enriched genes is the brain with 381 enriched genes...Read more


Image of the week - Int. fil from AltytwoAltryness

2016-04-16   |   0 Comments
Citizen Science

Fig 1. Staining of keratin 6B (green) with tubules (red) and DNA (blue) in U2 OS cells.

It's time for another HPA image of the week! This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery, and specifically by Altytwo Altryness who found this image playing Project Discovery and correctly identified the antibody as labeling intermediate filaments and displaying cell to cell variability.

The protein labeled in Fig 1. is an image of keratin 6B, type II (KRT6B) in U-2 OS cells, human epithelial osteosarcoma, which is the reference cell line for the HPA.

Keratin is a well known intermediate filament protein that form filaments roughly 10nm in diameter...Read more


Release of Human protein Atlas version 15

2016-04-11   |   0 Comments
HPA15 Release RNA Tissue Atlas Transcriptome

RNA and protein expression overview

Today, a new version, number 15, of The Human Protein Atlas is launched that includes extensive transcriptomics data and a new display view to allow comparisons of human tissue profiles on both the RNA and protein level. In this new version it is possible to do comparisons of primary data from several sources, including external efforts such as the GTEx dataset generated from the Broad Institute in Boston, US.

The GTEx dataset includes more than 1600 postmortem samples from mostly overlapping, but in some cases unique, tissues compared to the Human Protein Atlas consortium...Read more


Image of the week - Nucleoli rim found by Yadaryon

2016-04-08   |   0 Comments
Citizen Science Image of the week Nucleoli Project Discovery Subcell Atlas

Fig 1. Staining of nucleoli rim by NPM1 (green) with tubules (red) in A-431 cells.

It's time for another Image of the week! This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery, and specifically by Yadaryon who pointed out several nice examples of proteins localized to the rim of the nucleoli.

The nucleolus is an organelle within the nucleus of your cells. There may be one or more nucleoli in each nucleus, but they usually occur in small numbers. The primary job of the nucleoli is to assemble ribosomes which in turn make proteins within your cells...Read more


The urinary bladder proteome defined

2016-04-05   |   0 Comments
Proteome Tissue Atlas Transcriptomics Urinary bladder

Immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling of elevated genes in urinary bladder that are expressed in umbrella cells.

To understand the molecular functions of the urinary bladder, researchers including scientists from The Human Protein Atlas project have recently defined the expression of elevated genes in the bladder.

The main function of the urinary bladder is to store the urine made by the kidneys, allowing urination voluntarily. The urothelium also plays an important role in preventing rupture of urine storage and leakage of toxic urinary substances into the blood...Read more


Image of the week - Polarized HEP G2 membrane

2016-04-02   |   0 Comments
Citizen Science Image of the week Project Discovery Subcell Atlas

Staining of plasma membrane (green) with tubules (red) and DNA (blue) in HEP G2 cells.

Welcome to the second edition of image of the week. This week's image was brought to us by citizen scientists in Project Discovery. After analyzing the recent data from the project, this image was among the most frequently labeled as "abnormal" by the users.

This is an image of EPB41L1 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1). This staining is observed in HEP G2 human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. As you can clearly see here, there is significant cell-to-cell variation (CCD) in the staining, and even within a single cell at times.

As the name suggests, this is a well known membrane protein...Read more