THE HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS BLOG

The human adrenal gland proteome defined

2017-01-11
Adrenal gland Immunocytochemistry Proteome RNA-seq

The adrenal glands are small endocrine glands located right on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

In a recent publication in Endocrinology, researchers from the Human Protein Atlas have performed a comprehensive analysis of the gene expression landscape of the adrenal glands to define genes with different degrees of "specific" expression compared to 31 other normal human organs and tissue types. The analysis showed that only 253 genes (approximately 1% of all putative protein coding genes) showed some level of adrenal gland specific expression pattern.

The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines...Read more


The cancer proteome

2016-08-09
Cancer Immunocytochemistry Proteome

Tumor protein p53 in colorectal cancer

Cancer can be defined as a common heterogeneous and potentially deadly disease that affects approximately 1/3 of the human population. The common denominator for cancer is the development of an uncontrolled growth of cells that eventually leads to multiple organ failure and death.

The cancer proteome is based on genes that are implicated in cancer. Expression of these genes in normal cells contributes to normal growth, survival and function, whereas dysregulated expression, including overexpression, loss of expression or expression of a defect protein in cancer cells contributes to ungoverned tumor growth...Read more


The secretome and membrane proteome

2016-07-05
Membrane proteins Proteome Secretome

Secreted and membrane-bound proteins are important for physiological processes and are potential drug targets as they are easily accessible in the extracellular space and provide a gateway to the intracellular environment. About 3,000 protein-coding genes are predicted members of the secretome; examples of secreted proteins are cytokines, coagulation factors, hormones, and growth factors. Important members of the membrane proteome, consisting of about 5,500 genes encoding predicted membrane-bound proteins, are ion channels of molecular transporters, enzymes, receptors, and anchors for other proteins.

A majority of the human genes encode several splice variants...Read more


The housekeeping proteome

2016-06-28
Cytoskeleton Gene expression Housekeeping Metabolism Proteome RNA

Immunohistochemical staining showing the nuclear localization of the polymerase protein POLR2A responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes.

A large number of proteins are needed in all cells throughout the human body. These proteins are sometimes called housekeeping proteins, suggesting that their expression is crucial for the maintenance of basic functionality of all normally functioning cells.

A transcriptomics analysis shows that about 9,000 genes are expressed in all tissues and are therefore expected to fulfill these tasks, such as gene expression, metabolism, and cell structure.

As for gene expression, it is easily understood that every cell must have proteins that are involved in the genetic machinery of translating DNA to functional proteins, like RNA polymerases and ribosomal proteins...Read more


The urinary bladder proteome defined

2016-04-05
Proteome Tissue Atlas Transcriptomics Urinary bladder

Immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling of elevated genes in urinary bladder that are expressed in umbrella cells.

To understand the molecular functions of the urinary bladder, researchers including scientists from The Human Protein Atlas project have recently defined the expression of elevated genes in the bladder.

The main function of the urinary bladder is to store the urine made by the kidneys, allowing urination voluntarily. The urothelium also plays an important role in preventing rupture of urine storage and leakage of toxic urinary substances into the blood...Read more


Potential new tool for measuring beta cell mass

2016-03-29
Beta cells Diabetes Pancreas Proteome Tissue Atlas

Immunohistochemical staining of human pancreas shows strong cytoplasmic positivity in islet cells.

In a recent study, scientists including members of The Human Protein Atlas project have identified the beta cell specific protein GPR44 as a potentially novel tool for measuring beta cell mass in vivo, using radiolabeled PET ligands targeting GPR44.

The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for producing insulin and beta cell loss is one of the causes underlying diabetes. Blood biomarkers to measure beta cell function exist, but there is a lack of good tools for measuring the beta cell mass inside the body.

In this study, the ligand targeting GPR44 was compared to a ligand targeting the established beta cell marker VMAT2, and the performance was evaluated...Read more


The uterine endometrium-specific proteome defined

2016-03-22
Endometrium Proteome Tissue Atlas

In a recent study by co-workers of The Human Protein Atlas project over 100 genes with elevated expression pattern in the normal endometrium was found. A majority of these genes are well-known and have been extensively characterized. However, the list of endometrium-specific genes also includes uncharacterized genes, providing starting points for further studies of their role in normal homeostasis and diseases affecting the endometrium.

The uterus contains the endometrial mucosa which is the site for embryo implantation...Read more


Project Discovery - Day 1 results

2016-03-16
CCP Citizen Science EVE Online Human Protein Atlas MMOS Project Discovery Proteome

Fig. 1. Confusion matrix of gamer predictions versus HPA predictions. Here columns represent votes of gamers. Confusions occurring with a frequency below 1% are set to black for clarity.

Thanks Science Fans!

The response to Project Discovery has been amazing and overwhelming. You have taken to the game in a way none of us expected. Keep it up!

First, in an effort to stream line our interactions with you we have created a number of official social media outlets:

EVE forums: We have a number of official accounts we will respond to questions with.Twitter: HPA_Discovery - dedicated to posting updates, announcements and all things Project Discovery. Twitter is severely character limited so it's difficult to answer questions there.Reddits: /r/EVE and /r/projectdiscovery - We will be here for support as well...Read more


The human gastrointestinal tract proteome

2016-03-08
Gastrointestinal Tract Proteome Tissue Atlas

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of different organs with many shared functions and characteristics, but also distinct differences.

The human gastrointestinal tract-specific transcriptome and proteome as defined by RNA sequencing and antibody-based profiling

In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project and colleagues, a genome-wide transcriptomics analysis combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling was performed to describe the gene and protein expression patterns that define the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

The GIT organs (stomach, duodenum, jejunum/ileum and colon) were compared to gene expression levels in 23 other normal human tissues...Read more


The human skin proteome

2016-02-23
Proteome Skin Tissue Atlas

The human skin-specific genes defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling

Normal skin is consists mainly of epidermal cells in different phases of de-differentiation (keratinization) organized in several distinct layers with different appearance, functions, and molecular signatures. To characterize the skin-specific genes and the landscape of gene and protein expression in normal human skin in different layers and stages of differentiation, scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project have combined immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling and genome-wide deep sequencing of mRNA to compare skin with other normal tissue types...Read more


The human prostate proteome

2016-02-09
Cancer Prostate Proteome Tissue Atlas

The definition of the prostate specific proteome provides a starting point for further studies exploring the molecular repertoire of the prostate.

Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer found while defining the prostate specific transcriptome and proteomeTo better understand the function of the prostate and diseases associated with it, it is important to explore the molecular constituents that make up the prostate gland.

In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project and colleagues both gene and protein expression profiles were investigated in prostate tissue and compared to 26 other human tissues. The aim was to identify potential prostate specific biomarkers for potential clinical use...Read more


The human cardiac and skeletal muscle proteomes

2015-11-24
Heart Proteome Tissue Atlas

The human cardiac and skeletal muscle proteomes defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling

To understand cardiac and skeletal muscle function, it is important to define and explore their molecular constituents to identify similarities and differences in gene expression patterns between these different striated muscle tissues. In an effort driven by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas and colleagues, the genes and proteins with elevated expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle in relation to all other major human tissues and organs were investigate using a global transcriptomics analysis complemented with antibody-based profiling...Read more


The human brain proteome

2015-10-27
Brain Proteome Tissue Atlas

The human brain proteome mapped using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling with a focus on the cerebral cortex

The mammalian brain is a complex organ composed of many specialized cells, as well as specialized and discretely localized proteins. In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas and colleagues, transcriptomics and protein expression data was used to analyze brain-enriched genes from the frontal cortex...Read more