The human protein atlas blog


The human adrenal gland proteome defined

2017-01-11
Adrenal gland Immunocytochemistry Proteome RNA-seq

The adrenal glands are small endocrine glands located right on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

In a recent publication in Endocrinology, researchers from the Human Protein Atlas have performed a comprehensive analysis of the gene expression landscape of the adrenal glands to define genes with different degrees of "specific" expression compared to 31 other normal human organs and tissue types. The analysis showed that only 253 genes (approximately 1% of all putative protein coding genes) showed some level of adrenal gland specific expression pattern.

The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines...Read more


The cancer proteome

2016-08-09
Cancer Immunocytochemistry Proteome

Tumor protein p53 in colorectal cancer

Cancer can be defined as a common heterogeneous and potentially deadly disease that affects approximately 1/3 of the human population. The common denominator for cancer is the development of an uncontrolled growth of cells that eventually leads to multiple organ failure and death.

The cancer proteome is based on genes that are implicated in cancer. Expression of these genes in normal cells contributes to normal growth, survival and function, whereas dysregulated expression, including overexpression, loss of expression or expression of a defect protein in cancer cells contributes to ungoverned tumor growth...Read more


The secretome and membrane proteome

2016-07-05
Membrane proteins Proteome Secretome

Secreted and membrane-bound proteins are important for physiological processes and are potential drug targets as they are easily accessible in the extracellular space and provide a gateway to the intracellular environment. About 3,000 protein-coding genes are predicted members of the secretome; examples of secreted proteins are cytokines, coagulation factors, hormones, and growth factors. Important members of the membrane proteome, consisting of about 5,500 genes encoding predicted membrane-bound proteins, are ion channels of molecular transporters, enzymes, receptors, and anchors for other proteins.

A majority of the human genes encode several splice variants...Read more


The housekeeping proteome

2016-06-28
Cytoskeleton Gene expression Housekeeping Metabolism Proteome RNA

Immunohistochemical staining showing the nuclear localization of the polymerase protein POLR2A responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes.

A large number of proteins are needed in all cells throughout the human body. These proteins are sometimes called housekeeping proteins, suggesting that their expression is crucial for the maintenance of basic functionality of all normally functioning cells.

A transcriptomics analysis shows that about 9,000 genes are expressed in all tissues and are therefore expected to fulfill these tasks, such as gene expression, metabolism, and cell structure.

As for gene expression, it is easily understood that every cell must have proteins that are involved in the genetic machinery of translating DNA to functional proteins, like RNA polymerases and ribosomal proteins...Read more


The urinary bladder proteome defined

2016-04-05
Proteome Tissue Atlas Transcriptomics Urinary bladder

Immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling of elevated genes in urinary bladder that are expressed in umbrella cells.

To understand the molecular functions of the urinary bladder, researchers including scientists from The Human Protein Atlas project have recently defined the expression of elevated genes in the bladder.

The main function of the urinary bladder is to store the urine made by the kidneys, allowing urination voluntarily. The urothelium also plays an important role in preventing rupture of urine storage and leakage of toxic urinary substances into the blood...Read more